(Hagen, 1870) (calico crayfish)
Habitat: Shallow ditches and sloughs of medium to large rivers with plenty of aquatic plants and plant debris for cover; mud bottoms with stagnant water; can tolerate high turbidity; a burrower that will move from pond to pond.
Life History: 1.7 to 3.5 inches long; breeding occurs in late summer in New York and eggs are laid in the spring.
Native Range: Great Lakes, lower Ohio, and upper Mississippi drainages.
Nonindigenous Range: Unspecified locations in Pennsylvania; Hudson River in New York; all New England states except Maine.
Comments: Sold as bait; probable bait bucket introduction.
(Faxon, 1885) (ringed crayfish)
Habitat: Clear, rocky streams and rivers with significant current.
Life History: Can live 5 years; burrows into the gravel in daylight; females up to 3 inches long; breeding begins in October and eggs are laid in late spring.
Native Range: Central plains and Ozark regions.
Nonindigenous Range: Lower Hudson River drainage in New York.
Impacts: May be replacing native crayfish.
Comments: Pathway unknown; collections from New York made in late 1990s.
(Hagen, 1870) (Allegheny crayfish)
Habitat: Rocky streams.
Life History: Can reach 40 mm in carapace length; breeding occurs in late summer; eggs laid in the spring; juveniles appear as early as April; sexually mature after first year.
Native Range: Southeastern Ontario, western New York and Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, northern West Virginia and northern Virginia, and western Maryland.
Nonindigenous Range: Several locations in Maine and the lower Hudson River drainage.
Comments: Probable bait bucket introduction.
(Girard, 1852) (rusty crayfish)
Habitat: Streams, lakes, and ponds with varying substrates from silt to rock and plenty of debris for cover; needs permanent water, they generally do not burrow to escape dry periods.
Life History: Can reach 4 inches long; breeding occurs in the fall and eggs laid the following spring, hatching within several weeks.
Native Range: Ohio, Tennessee, and Cumberland drainages.
Nonindigenous Range: Unspecified locations in Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, Titicus River in Connecticut, Hudson River drainage in New York, Kanawha River in West Virginia, and the Androscoggin and Kennebec drainages in Maine.
Impacts: Displace native crayfish; destruction of plant bed abundance and diversity.
Comments: Probable bait bucket introduction; the introduction of one female carrying viable sperm could start a new population.
(Hagen, 1870) (virile crayfish)
Habitat: Streams with moderate flow and turbidity, abundant cover, stable water levels.
Life History: Can reach 5 inches; breeding occurs in July and eggs are laid in the spring.
Native Range: Missouri, upper Mississippi, lower Ohio, and Great Lakes drainages.
Nonindigenous Range: Unspecified locations in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Virginia; many creeks in Maryland, New York, and West Virginia.
Comments: Probable bait bucket introduction; has potential as human food resource.
(Girard, 1852) (white river crawfish)
Habitat: Sloughs, marshes, temporary pools and other standing water.
Life History: Can reach 5 inches long; breeding appears not to be restricted to one season.
Native Range: Southern Atlantic coast drainage from Georgia to Maine and from the Florida panhandle to Mexico; central Mississippi Valley to the upper Great Lakes drainages.
Nonindigenous Range: Non-specific locations in Connecticut, Maine (east-central), Massachusetts (west-central), and Rhode Island; Lower Hudson River drainage.
Comments: Probable bait bucket or aquaculture introductions; used as human food and in the bait industry.
(Girard, 1852) (red swamp crawfish)
Habitat: Flowing to non-flowing water streams and ditches with mud or sand bottoms and plenty of organic debris, growing vegetation not a necessity.
Life History: Can reach nearly 5 inches long; breeding takes place in the fall, females are burrowers.
Native Range: Gulf coastal plain from the Florida panhandle to Mexico; southern Mississippi River drainage to Illinois.
Nonindigenous Range: Private ponds in southern Maine: on Long Island and lower Hudson River system; unspecified locations in Maryland and Virginia.
Impacts: Has become an agricultural pest outside its native range.
Comments: An important aquaculture species; probable aquaculture introduction.